The following processes feature in project management:
Every project should have a project plan, which has been developed with full cooperation from the management of the organisation which is sponsoring the project. The more important the project the more senior the managers who should be aware of the project plan, have helped to write it, and be prepared to stand by it.
If risk is involved in the project, and it usually is, this should also be incorporated into the project plan.
A project plan details:
- what tasks are required as part of the project
- the cost of each task and the total cost for all
- the time for each task and the total time for all
- which groups of people will carry out which tasks
- Any risks inherent in the project
- The benefits of the project to the organisation
Ongoing monitoring is key to the success of a project. Monitoring will tell the project managers and stakeholders if the project is meeting time and costs schedules. Monitoring ensures that the resources required are available to complete the project. If the project falls behind schedule or goes over cost the project plan may need to be changed to reflect this.
If monitoring detects problems and assesses progress then the project manager needs to control the project in order to ensure successful delivery. Control involves:
- ensure action is taken on problems to prevent them from impeding the project
- ensuring that each part of the project team is progressing satisfactorily on their part of the project
Communication must be good between individuals and teams involved on the project. Lack of open and honest communication can be a major cause of project failures.
Depending on the size of the project and the organisation, the project manager will either directly manage people or manage through several tiers of management. The project manager may have to motivate people or ensure that those directly managing them motivate them.